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As primary linear broadcast workflows move into public cloud infrastructure appropriate cloud ingress and egress solutions need to be deployed. 

The internet is well known to be a lossy and best effort network but in practise AWS Direct Connect, GCP Dedicated Interconnect and Azure ExpressRoute all experience intermittent packet as do connections between compute instances in the cloud. 

We have worked with many tier 1 customers to evaluate and select appropriate cloud ingress and egress technology and architectures taking into account their requirements for:
  • Reliability
  • Tolerance for packet loss
  • Latency
  • Cost
  • Video quality 
In order to address packet loss, path loss of equipment failure a series of tools are available:
  • ARQ; SRT, RIST, Zixi etc
  • FEC
  • SMPTE 2022-7
  • Input redundancy
ARQ is a generic term used to describe fixed latency live video transport protocols generally based on UDP with a packet re-request mechanism. These allow for low and fixed latency transport of live video with efficient adaptive packet recovery typically up to 40%. 

Forward Error Correction (FEC) is a method for finding and correcting bit and low packet loss errors in data transmissions. Extra data, called multi row and multi column checksum packets, are transmitted in parallel to the outgoing video stream so that errors can be corrected at the receiving end. 

SMPTE ST 2022-7 defines requirements for redundant streams of SMPTE 2022 packets to be sent over diverse paths and reconstructed to a single output stream through seamless packet by packet protection switching at the RTP datagram level.

Example Ground to Cloud architecture: